Gardening is a whole science. Everything changes when it is grown for numerous and quality fruits.
To achieve this goal, care for the shrub is required, namely, regular pruning of currants.
- What is the purpose of pruning shrubs, types of pruning
- Why do you need pruning currant bushes?
- Types of pruning bushes
- Scheme of pruning black currant in the fall
- Rules for pruning currants for the winter in the fifth and subsequent years
- How currant pruning is done in spring, when planting
- Do I need to prune currants in the summer
- Pruning white and red currants, features
What is the purpose of pruning shrubs, types of pruning
If you want to get a large number of fruits from the currant bush, you need to properly care for it. Pruning helps to maximize the potential of the fruiting plant. There are several types of trimming. Each of them is resorted to at a certain time of the year, depending on the purpose of pruning.
Why do you need pruning currant bushes?
In order for a planted plant to bear good fruits, it needs to create comfortable conditions.
Cropping allows you to create them for several reasons:
- By removing unnecessary branches, it becomes stronger. If you do not cut off the excess, the plant will spend its vitality to create new branches. In this case, it will not be able to form large fruits in large quantities.
- Pruning is essential to form the correct crown. When the plant is too thick, the inner branches become poorly ventilated and darkened. Without enough light, the berries will grow small and sparse.
- Removing the extra branches makes picking the berries easier.
- For recreational purposes. In case of frostbite or damage to the branches, they should be cut to improve the condition of the plant.
- Building a strong skeleton. Pruning correctly will strengthen the main branches to resist strong winds. It will also allow the crown to hold the snow cap with minimal or no damage to the branches.
- Life extension. Pruning helps to extend the productive age of the plant at times.
Pruning should take place at the right time of the year. If this factor is not taken into account, pruning the bush will not give the desired result.
Types of pruning bushes
There are three types of pruning, each of which gardeners use for objective reasons.
Thanks to her, gardeners create a strong, healthy and beautiful bush. The first stage of shaping pruning begins when the seedling is planted. Over the course of several years, a strong skeleton and a beautiful crown have been formed.
You need to start in the fall (3 weeks before the expected start of frost), or in early spring, before the start of the awakening period. For 5-6 years of care, shaping pruning is required, after which the bush becomes mature, and requires only rejuvenating pruning.
This name speaks for itself. It is like rehabilitation in case of frostbite, damage or the presence of unproductive (shriveled) branches and diseased shoots.
The purpose of this pruning is to extend the growing season. By removing currant branches, which after 6-8 years lose the ability to produce high-quality berries, it is possible to develop more promising branches.
Black, red and white currants have different periods of maturation of the branches, therefore, the care for them is different. I do rejuvenating pruning in accordance with the type of currant. Sanitary pruning is done annually.
Scheme of pruning black currant in the fall
Pruning should be done after planting the seedling in the first year of life. Growing black currants requires annual pruning. Why should you prune in the fall? The currant wakes up quickly, and when the period of sap flow begins, it makes no sense to prune.
In the spring, you need to have time to do the pruning so that the wounds have time to heal, and during the period of awakening, the juice does not drain from the slices. In this case, the plant will spend energy on healing, and not the formation of high-quality fruitful buds.
Autumn is the best time for pruning. After the onset of the autumn cold, sap flow slows down in currants. Pruning should be done during this period, but no later than 2-3 weeks before the expected onset of frost. The plant should have time to heal the slices before frost.
Black currant has a number of differences in comparison with red and white currants. It grows widely and sprawling. The branches age faster and stop bearing fruit, so the pruning scheme is special.
Forming pruning is done in the first year of life, after planting. At the base of the plant, you need to count 3-5 buds on each branch, and cut everything that is above. By the next season, it will have about 5-6 new shoots.
The next year, a new pruning is carried out. It is necessary to choose 3-4 of the most promising and correctly growing shoots, the rest are cut off. When choosing whom to cut, preference should be given to those shoots that interfere or shade each other.
Selected shoots will become skeletons in the future. In order to activate the growth of shoots in subsequent years and increase the number of small fruit branches, in the middle of summer you need to cut the tops of the existing branches into 2 buds. Thus, the correct structure and fruits (branches bearing fruits) are formed.
In the third year, zero shoots will appear again. Of these, you need to choose from 3 to 6 of the strongest, well-located shoots relative to the existing branches.
Do not leave underdeveloped shoots inside: they will give excessive shading of strong branches, but they themselves will not give good berries. In the grown branches in the second year of life, the tops are cut into several buds.
The same thing happens in the fourth year. Among the new shoots, the strongest are chosen, the rest are cut out. The branches of the second and third years are shortened at the branch points to several buds.
Rules for pruning currants for the winter in the fifth and subsequent years
In the fifth year of life, rejuvenating pruning is already required. Since the branches of black currant grow old by the age of 5-6 and stop bearing fruit, they should be eliminated along with tops (shoots from an old branch).
Among the young shoots, the best are selected - the rest are cut out.
You also need to trim the tips of the regrown branches to stimulate the growth of new shoots. The bush may also require sanitary pruning.
All subsequent years, the bush must be continued to look after, growing new strong shoots and removing old, unproductive branches. The bush should consist of 20-25 branches of different years. With proper care, it can bear fruit for up to 25 years.
How currant pruning is done in spring, when planting
Spring pruning has advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages are:
- conducting effective sanitary pruning, removing broken branches after winter;
- frostbitten shoots are cut off;
- a fresh cut will not freeze with the arrival of cold weather.
But it should be borne in mind that spring pruning is done after the temperature on the street has settled above +5, and there will be no frost.
The main disadvantage of spring pruning may be that currants wake up early. To be late with pruning, the wounds will not have time to heal, and during the period of sap flow, fluid will ooze from the wounds. This will result in a poor harvest.
The structure of the red and white currant bush differs from the black one. The red skeletal branches are more branched. The awakening period is later, and the growing season of the branch lasts several years later than that of the black one.
For red, spring pruning will be the best period, although some pruning is recommended in the fall as well.
The scheme for growing a bush of red and white currants is the same as that of black, but there are some differences:
- the tops of last year's increments are not pinched;
- in 2-3-year-old shoots, the tops are not cut off;
- 7-year-old branches are removed.
A branch of red currant is capable of bearing fruit for 7-8 years, after which the branch is cut off at the root.
The whole point of caring for a red or white currant bush is to remove old branches, excess shoots and carry out sanitary pruning. Old, but still fruiting branches can be shortened to branch, which stimulates the development of lateral shoots.
Do I need to prune currants in the summer
It is recommended to prune in accordance with the recommendations for this type of currant. Black currants need to be cut in the fall, after the leaves have fallen off and the sap flow in the plant stops. But the red and white are recommended to be cut in the spring or in the middle of summer after fruiting. Summer pruning will not work for black currants.
For red and white currants, pruning should be done in either spring or summer.
Pruning in July has its advantages: the cut will not freeze (which there is a chance with autumn pruning), the cut will not ooze juice if the plant wakes up (possible with spring pruning), pruning is done after harvest.
Pruning white and red currants, features
Pruning white and red currants is not done in the same way as black currants. This is due to the peculiarities of the structure and growth of the branches of the bush. If in black currant the branches stop bearing fruit for 5-6 years, then in red and white the growing season stops for 7-8 years. Thus, the most fruitful time for the bushes of these species is the 3-4th year of the life of the branch.
Red currants do not pinch the tips of branches on 3 and 4 year old branches. Black currant thrives on young shoots. Other types of currant often release side shoots, due to which it becomes more lush.
The formation of the crown of the bush begins with planting the plant. In the spring, the existing branches are immediately pinched, which makes it possible to release young shoots from the root.
In the second year, new shoots appear, of which only a few strong, well-located branches need to be left. Since the bush tends to thicken with vegetation in the center of the bush, it is necessary to thin it out from the inside.
Regular sanitary pruning is recommended by removing diseased, broken off or bacteria-infected branches.
By the age of 7-8 years of the life of the branch, it is cut off at the root, since there will be no more benefit from it. At this time, the branch becomes so old that it cannot bear fruit.
With your own hands, you can create a strong, well-fruiting currant bush. To do this, it is worth studying the type of currant that you plan to grow. With a properly chosen pruning scheme, the bush will bear high-quality and numerous fruits.
You will learn more about the rules for cutting currants when watching the video: