Many gardeners are familiar with the situation when carrot seeds, sown in compliance with all the basic rules of agricultural technology, do not germinate. What secrets does carrots keep, planting and caring for and what you need to know in advance.
- When to sow carrots, variety selection and seed preparation
- Where and how to plant carrots
- How to care for carrots
When to sow carrots, variety selection and seed preparation
The genus Carrot belongs to the Umbrella family. For consumption, cultivated carrots are grown. It is divided into two types:
- dining room
Naturally, table varieties of carrots are grown for consumption. Spring planting dates begin immediately after the soil thaws. In some places, these are the last days of March, but most often it is the second half of April - early May. Carrot varieties for spring sowing:
- Autumn king - a variety with an excellent presentation and good taste, fruits weighing up to 200 g and up to 29 cm long;
- Alenka - delicious fruits, weighing 150 - 170 g, one of the best varieties for sowing in spring
- Tushon - fruits are large enough, weight up to 180 - 190 g
In summer, it is customary to plant carrots in the first decade of June, the variety is suitable for this: Flakke or Valeria - a fruitful, lying variety, the length of the fruits reaches 0.3 m
In autumn, carrots must be sown just before the soil freezes. Most often this occurs in the last decade of October - the first decade of November, depending on weather conditions it may be even later.
Carrot varieties for autumn sowing. Early and mid-season frost-resistant varieties are most suitable for sowing before winter. This method is used for harvesting already in mid-June and for eating carrots in summer and early autumn. Such carrots are not suitable for storage in winter. It is best to opt for autumn planting on the following varieties:
- Nantes 4 - the growing season is 80 - 100 days, 65 days pass from emergence to harvest, the roots are cylindrical, red - orange, sweet.
- Losinoostrovskaya 13 is a cold-resistant variety, root crops contain an increased amount of carotene, the pulp is tender.
- Moscow Winter is an ideal variety for many regions with cold winters.
If the gardener has decided on the varieties of carrots and the timing of planting convenient for himself, then it remains to figure out how best to prepare the seeds for sowing.
Seed preparation for sowing
For sowing in spring and summer, planting material must be checked for empty, defective seeds. To do this, they are poured with cold water. All that has surfaced up is removed. At the next stage, essential oils and other substances that retard germination must be washed off from the surface of the seeds.
To do this, the seeds must be folded into a bag of two to three layers of gauze or thin cloth. Immerse it in water heated to + 45 degrees and rinse well. Drain the water and repeat the procedure. After that, the seeds are placed in cold water and slightly dried. The above techniques help to achieve maximum germination of carrot seeds.
The time of emergence of seedlings is also reduced. This usually occurs in the second week after sowing. Before winter, sowing is done only with dry seeds. The choice of a place for a carrot garden is also important.
Where and how to plant carrots
When choosing a place, you need to pay attention to the best predecessor for carrots. These are primarily the following cultures:
Bad precursors for carrots are:
The garden bed is chosen in a well-lit place with a maximum lighting time during the day. The soil should be sufficiently loose, on heavy soils, the shape of the root crop may change, varietal qualities will not appear in full. It is best to dig up the garden bed in the fall, regardless of the sowing date. If sowing is planned in spring or summer, then it must be mulched to retain moisture.
The ground should be dug to a depth of at least 25 - 30 cm. For autumn planting, the depth of the grooves is made up to 2 - 3 cm in depth. The distance between the grooves is 20 cm. The seed consumption is one third more than during spring sowing. You need to close the furrows with loose warm earth. To do this, on the eve of sowing, part of the land must be brought into heat. A layer of peat of 3-4 cm is poured over the filled grooves.
In winter, snow is shoveled onto the garden bed. On top of the snow, you can sketch spruce branches. Important! When sowing in the fall, you can add some radish or lettuce seeds to carrot seeds. Seedlings of these crops will appear earlier and will mark the rows with carrots. This will make it easier to care for your carrot.
In the spring, mulch is removed from the beds prepared in autumn. The soil under it is quite loose and moist. With the help of a board, about 10 cm wide, make even depressions, pressing the board 1 - 2 cm. After that, the ground in the depression is well watered.
The prepared seeds are sown evenly along the edge of the recess. Having moved the board, another such depression is made next to it with the help of the board, and the seeds are sown along the far edge in relation to the first row. Cover the seeds with soil. It is important that the embedment depth is not more than 1 cm.
With such a planting, all the seeds will be at approximately the same depth and will give amicable shoots. Before sprouting, the carrot bed should not be watered. Carrot culture is quite hardy, but still it needs some care.
How to care for carrots
Thinning and feeding
Regardless of the sowing time, an important step in carrot cultivation is the thinning of crops. This is usually done in two steps. The first thinning is carried out after the second true leaf appears. There should be 1.5 - 2 cm between adjacent plants.
The second thinning is carried out two to three weeks after the first. As a result, the distance between neighboring plants should be 4 cm for varieties with medium-sized root crops and 6 cm for large-fruited varieties. After the second thinning, the carrots can be fed with nitrogen fertilizers. The ear is scattered along the row and embedded in the soil. The amount of fertilizer is 20 g per sq. m.
Carrots are very responsive to watering. In a dry summer, it needs to be watered every other day, preventing the soil from drying out too much. But at the end of June, watering is either stopped altogether, or made more rare. This stimulates the growth of the root crop in depth, where more moisture is retained than in the upper layers of the soil.
So that the upper part of the carrot does not stick out from the ground and does not acquire a green color, the plantings need to be well spud. At the same time, you need to loosen the ground and remove weeds. There are no such complex techniques in caring for carrot crops that any gardener cannot cope with.
Video on the correct planting of carrots: