Currant is a valuable berry crop from the genus Currant of the Gooseberry family. We will try to understand the features of the plant, where the currants will grow best on the site and in the rules for planting currants in the spring.
- Features of black currant
- How to plant currants with cuttings in spring
- Spring planting of black currant seedlings
Features of black currant
Currant is a perennial deciduous shrub. The average height of the bushes is 150 cm. The root system is fibrous. The main part of the roots is at a depth of no more than half a meter. The currant bush consists of shoots of different ages. New stems emerge from the buds of the underground section of the stem. The leaves are large, matte, green. They appear in the spring from the buds.
Budding time is from the third decade of April to mid-May. The leaves of three currants are five-lobed. The edges of the leaf plates are serrated. After the buds open, it is time for flowering. The flowers are small, no more than 5 - 6 mm in diameter, clustered in inflorescences with a brush up to 10 - 12 cm long, in each inflorescence, on average, up to 8 - 10 flowers. The length of the inflorescence is from 5 to 12 cm.
Aromatic berries are formed in place of flowers. When ripe, the skin is black or brown. Average berry diameter up to 10 mm. Seeds are located under the skin in the pulp, on average, their number is from 3 to 5. Currants are valued for their high content of nutrients not only in berries, but also in leaves.
Berries contain enough sugars for a pleasant sweet and sour taste. In addition, they contain vitamins:
- IN 1
- IN 2
- AT 6
The beneficial properties of black currant berries are due to the content of potassium, manganese, iron, phosphorus and other substances and chemical compounds. In amateur gardening, currants are most often propagated by cuttings. We will try to find out whether it is possible to plant not only cuttings, but also ready-made currant seedlings in the spring and how best to do it.
How to plant currants with cuttings in spring
Propagating black currants by cuttings is in some cases much more profitable than purchased seedlings. This is because an adult bush grown from a cuttings will produce berries with the same properties as the parent plant. Thus, if there is already a successful variety on the site that needs to be propagated, then not one, but several cuttings can be prepared from it.
Although cuttings for spring planting can be cut in the fall, but it is more convenient to do this in early spring, combining the procedure with spring pruning of the bush. In addition, there is no need to preserve planting material in winter.
For spring planting, cuttings are taken from mature shoots, at least 0.6 cm thick. The length of the cutting should not be less than 15 cm.In general, it is believed that the longer the shoot, the better the seedling develops, but you should not take cuttings longer than 20 cm. The upper cut is made straight, at a distance of about one cm above the upper kidney. The lower cut is oblique.
If 2 - 3 cuttings are prepared, then you can plant them for rooting in the holes, but if there are a lot of cuttings, then you need to dig a trench for planting. For the spring planting of currants with cuttings, it is advisable to dig a trench and fill it in the fall.
Fill it with a mixture of compost and rotted humus. As soon as the soil has completely thawed and warmed up a little, you can start planting cuttings.
It is preferable to plant immediately after the layer of thawed earth is 20 cm, the more moist the soil is at this moment, the more successful rooting will be. Cuttings prepared for planting can be immediately planted in a trench, or this can be done after lightly dusting the lower ends with any root formation stimulator.
Cuttings are placed at a distance of 15 - 20 cm. They are installed obliquely, embedded in the ground 3 - 4 cm with the lower end into the ground. Two buds are left above the surface of the earth, the first should be directly above the surface itself. In order for root formation to pass without problems, it is important to maintain a supply of moisture in the soil. To do this, the soil is mulched with a compost layer of at least 3 cm.
Further care consists in regular watering and loosening of the soil. By autumn, small separate bushes take root and form. The next spring, they need to be planted in a permanent place, like any purchased blackcurrant seedling.
Spring planting of black currant seedlings
The best time for spring planting is the green cone stage, planting currant bushes when the buds have already opened is undesirable. This is usually done in April - early May. When choosing a permanent place for spring planting of currants, you need to remember that it is a fairly moisture-loving plant. In the wild, currant bushes most often grow in damp lowlands or along river banks.
Therefore, a lower humid place is suitable for it on the site. It is important that it is protected from the wind, especially in winter. In terms of composition, fertile loamy soils are best suited. It doesn't matter if a seedling is purchased or grown from a cutting, you need to prepare a hole for planting it. Its size must be at least 40 cm deep and 50 cm wide.
If the soil for spring planting was not fertilized in advance, then the pit will have to be filled with fertilizers. To do this, the following is brought to the bottom:
- 8 kg of humus
- 60 g potassium salt
- 100 g granular superphosphate
In the pit, the seedling is installed slightly obliquely, the roots are covered with earth, periodically compacting it. After planting, the root collar of the currant bush should be underground, at a depth of 6 - 7 cm. This position of the root collar accelerates the survival rate and promotes better further formation of the currant bush.
The newly planted bush needs to be watered, after which the near-stem area is mulched with peat, humus. Immediately after the bush is planted, it is watered and the soil is covered with mulch, it must be cut off. All ground shoots are shortened so that 2 to 4 buds remain on them. When planting currants in the spring, the seedlings need to be fed about the third week after planting.
15 grams of nitrogen fertilizers are applied under the bushes. Throughout the summer, spring plantings of currants get rid of weeds and water them in a timely manner. If everything is done correctly, then on early-growing varieties the first harvest can be expected next year.
Video about growing black currant: