An important and necessary technique that is used both in agriculture and in individual gardening is grafting and re-grafting of trees. Grafting is the most common method for propagating the vegetative type of fruit plants.
- What is tree grafting?
- Vaccination tools
- The meaning of rootstock and scion
- Vaccination methods
What is tree grafting?
Reproduction in this case occurs as soon as possible. Grafting is used if, when the plant is propagated by seeds, all its varietal characteristics are not preserved.
Grafting is the transfer of a part of one plant (stalk, bud) to another plant, with the aim of their further accretion. If a fruit tree has been grafted, then it has two parts:
- cultivar scion
- rootstock that has been grown from seed or rooted cuttings
The graft includes only the part of the tree that is above the ground. The rootstock is the entire underground part of the plant - the root system together with the base of the stump. When the scion and rootstock grow together, a single organism is formed. These two parts in the future will interact with each other.
In the process of grafting trees, the rootstock already includes not only the underground part of the plant, but also everything that is located below the grafting site. Thanks to grafting, it is possible to multiply trees of any type, while quality and features will not be lost. By sowing seeds, it is far from always possible to achieve a good result, and often all the characteristic signs and features of the tree are lost.
You need to know not only how to plant trees, but what time it is best to do it. The most favorable time for this process is spring and summer.
In autumn and winter, these procedures are practically not performed. Experts do not recommend vaccinating in the cold season at all, since due to low temperatures, the stalk will die before it takes root. This procedure can be carried out in winter, but if special conditions are created for the plant, for example, a greenhouse, or the grafting process will take place indoors, but in no case, not outdoors.
Depending on what kind of tree you are planting, it is necessary to take into account its individual characteristics. For example, some trees are best planted in the spring, while others, on the contrary, are best planted in hot summer weather. Therefore, you should always take this factor into account when choosing the time for vaccination.
It is necessary to prepare cuttings for grafting in advance. As a rule, this procedure takes place one year before the tree is grafted. Throughout the entire time, cuttings should be stored in special conditions so that they do not die and do not lose their qualities. You can use sawdust or dry sand, and the room itself should have a high level of humidity, a minimum amount of light and a low temperature.
It is worth noting that this procedure is best entrusted to a professional who has experience in this area and who knows all the specifics of this process and the features of trees. The vaccination process itself is fraught with a large number of subtleties that should be considered, therefore. If you do not have enough knowledge, then it is best to entrust the vaccination to a knowledgeable person.
In order to properly and effectively carry out the process of grafting a tree. You must have a certain set of tools:
- copulating knife, which must be sharply sharpened. This is necessary for the vaccination itself.
- for cutting branches of large thickness, a saw is used - a hacksaw
- to cut thin branches, you must use a garden knife, which must be sharply sharpened in advance
- for cutting cuttings, a pruner or the same garden knife is used
- buds from the cutting must be removed with a copulating knife
For a novice gardener, it is necessary to note such an important fact as the handling of garden tools. All movements of knives and other equipment should be made in the direction away from you. When this condition is met, really even cuts are obtained and there is no threat to the health of the gardener. In the process of stripping branches, when using a garden knife, you must use your thumb as a stop.
The meaning of rootstock and scion
In the process of grafting trees, the rootstock is of particular importance. The flow of water and essential nutrients into the tree itself is ensured precisely through the root system of the rootstock. As for the scion, it is necessary to supply the tree with a number of assimilation products that are produced by the foliage of the tree. Thus, the scion and the rootstock have a mutual effect on each other.
The durability of the tree, its resistance to various negative factors and overall development, in general, depends on the stock. In this category, you can add such a characteristic as yield, if we are talking about a fruitful tree. Therefore, it is important that the stock has a high level of resistance to sudden temperature changes, to excessive or insufficient amount of moisture, as well as to be compatible with the grafted tree (accretion).
At present, the practice of gardening can present a large number of cases when a number of varieties of fruit trees are almost completely incompatible with a certain type of stock. There were even cases when they broke off on their own during the grafting process. In order to eliminate this risk, it is initially necessary to graft trees with varieties that are truly compatible and grow well on rootstocks. And after a while, above the first grafting, you can graft with a different plant variety.
Today, several methods of grafting trees are known, which are divided into two main groups:
- kidney inoculation
- shoot inoculation
The choice of this or that method is made depending on the purpose of grafting, as well as on the characteristics of the plant itself. Therefore, it is always necessary to take into account the characteristics of a particular plant. It is advisable to study the information in which the process of grafting this tree variety has already been described and whether there was a positive result at the end of this process.
Grafting trees is a rather laborious and responsible process that requires special knowledge.
The best ways to graft trees on video: