Garden var is a water-insoluble, viscous substance intended for application to "wounds" (cuts) of trees. This mixture protects the cut area of a branch or a tree trunk (or a wound affected by parasites or insects) from fungi and bacteria, prevents sap from leaking out, protects against pests and insects.
- Garden var: description and tips for use
- Recipes and cooking process for garden var
Garden var: description and tips for use
The use of garden varnish is necessary to protect the wound after grafting, pruning, after damage caused by rodents and other pests and parasites, in order to avoid drying out, fungi, decay, cracking, and the appearance of parasites.
Usually wounds on tree trunks are divided into the following types:
- Damage after pruning, removing branches or a section of a tree trunk
- Damage from wounds to certain parts of wood and bark
- Wound damage to a whole circle of wood and bark
- Breaks from broken tree branches
- Hollow - deep wounds
Treating wounds on a tree trunk is a multi-stage, complex biological process. In the process, a scar-like callus ring is formed, which appears in the first summer, increases and grows over the next years until the moment when the wound is completely healed. The cambium cells, which make up the callus ring, heal the damaged area of the trunk.
Recipes and cooking process for garden var
The following substances are usually used as a basis for garden varnish:
- Beekeeping products (propolis, wax)
- Food fats (sunflower, flaxseed, corn and other oils, lard) and alcohol
- By-products from oil production (alcohol, resin, rosin)
- Medicines (medical alcohol)
- Mixtures used in the agrotechnical field (Heteroauxin, ash obtained as a result of burning grape vines)
- Mixtures used in construction and automobile mixtures (solid oil, antifreeze, drying oil)
In general, garden vars can be divided into two types:
- Heat-liquid (var Zhukovsky, Pashkevich)
- Cold-resistant (var Reshetnikov, Gaug, Raevsky)
In order to make Zhukovsky's var you will need: rosin, wax (preferably yellow), lamb or beef fat in a melted state. All components must be taken in equal proportions. First you need to melt the rosin, wax and fat in separate containers, pour everything into a tin container, stir well.
Next, you should wait until the mixture cools down a little and pour it into a bucket (or basin) with cold water. When the mixture curdles, you need to take it out and, kneading it in your hands, make a ball ("bun") out of it. Such a mass must be kept in paper, previously oiled. It is recommended to treat trees with such a pitch in the warm season, since it tends to harden in the cold. It is advisable to cover the wound site with a rag, since wasps and bees flock to this substance.
To prepare Pashkevich's ointment, you need to take yellow wax, turpentine, refined rosin, melted fat in a ratio of 4: 4: 2: 1. First you need to melt the wax, gradually adding rosin and turpentine to it. When the mass is melted enough, you need to pour fat into it and stir until the mixture is smooth.
Further, the same procedure as with Zhukovsky's varnish: cooling the mixture with cold water, forming small rollers from the var with hands, further storage in oil-treated paper. You need to apply the ointment in a thin layer on a piece of cotton fabric, then tightly bandage the wounds on the trunk and branches of the tree with it.
To prepare Reshetnikov's ointment, you need to take fir resin, yellow (unbleached) wax and wine alcohol in a ratio of 10: 1: 1. The first step is, stirring constantly, to warm up the resin and wax so that the mixture becomes liquid. Next, you need to let the mixture cool down a little, and then pour the heated wine alcohol into it.
This var is best applied with a brush. The advantage of this vara is that it leans against the wound and completely covers its entire surface. It does not dry out, does not form cracks, remains ductile and viscous regardless of temperature, and is waterproof.
Such var best fights against damage caused by rodents, circular wounds.
To make a var Gauga, you need the following components: pine resin (400 g), wine alcohol (60 ml), gum arabic (gum) (4 g), soda (1 tsp). First you need to warm up the resin and alcohol, then dissolve the gum and soda in water. Now you need to mix all this, let it cool and apply to the surface of the wounds with a brush.
To prepare Raevsky's var, you need wood resin (0.5 kg), alcohol (60 ml), linseed oil (2 tbsp. The resin and alcohol must be heated, then mixed and added to them oil. The resulting mass must be poured into a tin can and closed lid so it stays semi-liquid.
Tip: before the mixture of homemade garden varnish hardens, pour the heteroauxin crushed into powder into it in the ratio of 1 tablet per 1 kg of the mixture. This little trick will help make the healing process faster on tree trunks and branches.
Var is prepared correctly, if, when working with it, it is applied without difficulty, if it is sticky, does not dry, in hot weather it does not start to spread and does not crack in the cold season.
Nowadays, of course, you can buy an industrial garden pitch and no less successfully heal wounds on trees with them. But old long-term recipes developed by gardeners still work better on garden country trees. They heal wounds faster, prevent parasites from appearing on the tree, thereby prolonging the life of your garden and making it more beautiful and lush.
Also, many amateur gardeners enjoy the very process of making a garden var. When using these mixtures, you can analyze yourself and, based on your own observations, draw a conclusion, what kind of var is suitable for certain trees, taking into account the climate, tree varieties, artificial care for them (additional watering, fertilization).
Video about the properties and intricacies of using a garden varnish: